Woodland and Forest

Woodland and forest in general (18.9%).

First of all I want to look at some reasonably well known birds of the woodlands and forest in general, presented according to the geographical region in which they are found:-

1. Mainly tropical regions (14.1%).

  • Geographically Widespread - Pigeons and Doves (306), Cockatoos and Parrots (359).
  • African Region - Turacos, Go-away birds, Plantain-eaters, Hornbills, Mousebirds, Barbets, Bulbuls (301).
  • Australasian Region - Bowerbirds, Satinbirds, Berrypeckers, Whistlers, Figbirds, Orioles, Birds of Paradise (151).
  • American Region - Parakeet, Macaw, Amazon, Toucan, Manakins, Cotingas, Orioles, Palmchat, Hoatzin. (246).
  • Northern half of South America-tropical and sub-tropical, moist, lowland forests - Grosbeaks, Saltators. Grosbeaks are found in brushy habitats in the Americas. They eat insects, fruit, seeds, buds and blossoms. They like coniferous forests but will also feed on shoots, buds and berries from rowan trees (42).

2. Coniferous and deciduous forests (2.3%).

  • Jays are found in lightly wooded areas with bushy thickets in the Americas (38).
  • Crossbills (5) are very much birds of the coniferous forests where they prise the seeds out of the pine cones. Five species have evolved in Europe, Asia and North America. They have differently sized beaks for dealing with the cones of larch, spruce and pine.
  • Hawfinch (1) can be found in deciduous and mixed woods. They have a powerful beaks which can break cherry and olive stones.
  • Nutcrackers (2) favour coniferous forests in Europe.
  • Cuckoos are found in this habitat in many regions of the world. They specialise in eating hairy caterpillars (144).
  • Trogons like wooded gorges where they snatch invertebrates from the foliage (42).

3. Nocturnal hunters (1.2%).

  • Frogmouths, Oilbird, Potoo, Nightjar, Owlet-nightjar (118 species).
  • Frogmouths are birds of Australasia which sit motionless on a tree branch by day and fly down to take frogs and lizards from the ground by night.
  • Potoos, found in middle and south America, imitate broken tree branches by day and catch passing insects in flight by night returning to the same perch.
  • Oilbird - is ony found in Trinidad and Venezuela where it nests by day in caves and flies out to feed on fruit by night.

4. Ground feeders (1.3%).

Reluctant fliers use trees for cover - Tinamous, Megapodes, Chachalacas, Curassows, Guans, Guineafowl, Northern Bobwhite.

Trees - trunks, branches and foliage (12.3%)

This sub-group covers birds which relate to the trees themselves, their trunks, branches and foliage:-

1. Peckers, probers and creepers (3.1%).

These birds either peck or bore into trunks and branches or they creep along the surfaces to glean and probe on or under the bark of trees to feed on insects and invertebrates:-

Peckers - Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, Piculets, Flickers, Sapsuckers (200).
Probers - Nuthatches, Sittellas, Wood Hoopoes, NZ. Wren, Saddleback or Wattled Crow (42).
Creepers - Woodcreepers, Australasian treecreepers, Philippine creepers,Treecreepers, Wallcreeper (69).

2. Branch tip gleaners (2.4%).

Tits, Chickadees, Penduline tits, Bush tits, White-eyes, Goldcrests, Verdin, Vireos, Greenlets, Kinglets.

3. Foliage gleaners (6.8%).

Australasian Warblers, Cisticolas, Prinias, OW. Warblers, NW. Warblers. Firecrest, Flamecrest, Goldcrest and Kinglets.

Broadbills, Boatbill, Iora, Fairy bluebirds, Leafbirds, upper foliage. Vireos, Greenlets middle to upper foliage. Pardalotes upper foliage. Batis low foliage.